The altitude of sandstone rocks in Broumov upland varies from 550 to 786 m. Average annual temperature is in the range from 5 to 7°C and average annual precipitation varies from 700 mm to 900 mm. A specialty is the existence of climatic inversions in deep rocky gorges.
There are spruce stands with alpine vegetation (Cicerbita alpina, Eneaphyllos europaeus, Empetrum nigrum etc.) in deep cold gorges. On rock plateaus, on the contrary, relict pine woods with cranberries and blueberries (Vaccinium myrtyllus, Vaccinium idaeus) and lichens can be found.
The rocks were created from upper cretaceous marine sediments (middle Turonian and Coniacian). Earth movements on the faults, water erosion, ice and frost formed the relief of this region and final shape of the rocks. The highest sandstone towers are more than 100 m high. The longest pseodocarst caves originated in the rushed boulders in deep gorges.
The cave “Teplická jeskyně” is about 2 km long system of corridors. Some caves serve as a shelter of various bats of 12 species. Other caves are decorated with root stalagmites. There are vast aquifers of drinking water deep in cretaceous rocks. Water from this region is a very important water supply not only for towns and villages in Broumov region but it essentially contributes to the eastern Bohemia drinking water supplying system.
Because of acidic geologic bed and poor soils flora of sandstone areas is not that diverse. Most interesting and preserved species can be found in wider gorges along the creeks: Leucojum vernum, Lunaria rediviva, Lycopodium annotinum, Oxycoccus palustris, Ledum palustre, Lilium martagon, Neottia nidus avis, Daphne mezerum, Eriophorum vaginatum, Rosa pendulina, Thalictrum aquilegifolium and Viola biflora.
Birds ranks among the most interesting animals of the rocks, especially birds of prey and owls: eagle owl Bubo bubo, black stork Ciconia nigra, falcon Falco peregrinus, sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus and others. In total there are more than 70 nesting species. The spider Bathyphantes simillimus, a glacial relict, is the specialty of cold gorges. Rocks and little peat lakes are home of various mollusks, dragonflies, amphibians and reptiles.